Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Field Of American Studies - 1758 Words

In this essay, I will examine the field of American Studies and attempt to explain its ever changing definition. I will take the reader through the origins of American Studies and describe the events that led to changes in the discipline. The scholars in American Studies are constantly seeking to understand the practices by individuals and groups and their history of origin. Scholars struggle to understand how values and beliefs shape social and political realities within the U.S. and other countries. American Studies is an interdisciplinary study that explores cultures of the United States as well as their transnational exchanges and impact. In the words of Staurt Hall, he â€Å"finds in American culture and in America’s capacity to live with difference the best illustration of a continuous dialect between the local and the global, between the insular and the transnational. He defines culture as an embodiment of the best that has been thought and said in a society. It is the sum of the great ideas as represented in the classic works of painting, music, and philosophy that represent culture. (Hall, 9)† Hall also has observed U.S. dominance in communication and described America as the common factor of globalization. The field of American Studies began in what may be called a single beginning with multiple origins. The beginning of the American Studies Association in late 1951 and early 1952 and the beginning of the journal, American Quarterly at the University of Minnesota inShow MoreRelatedEssay on Development of African American Studies1148 Words   |  5 PagesDevelopment of African American Studies Scholars have dedicated their time and attention to furthering the discipline of African American Studies and can define the field with many different definitions. Through looking at the origins and development in the study we can see how it became a legitimate academic field. As we study the writings of the African American intellect, it will fully explain the importance of the discipline. Their work will justify the study of cultural and historical experiencesRead MoreThe Theory Or No Theory?1425 Words   |  6 Pagesmethodology (Derrida 1).There are fields that have authentic theories of understanding information, such as psychology or biology. American Studies, although being an interdisciplinary field, has it’s own set of theories. There are some that feel that due to the nature of American Studies, approaches are not all encompassing for understanding America. Where there are several theories within the field, myth and symbol along with contextualism have been the pri mary focus of study. Theories like myth and symbolRead MoreThe Article Controversial Blackness : The Historical Development Future Trajectory Of African American Studies1462 Words   |  6 PagesDevelopment Future Trajectory of African American Studies,† was written by Martha Biondi, a European Associate Professor of African American Studies and History at Northwestern University. Martha Biondi (2011), discusses the trajectory, development, growth, training, history, of African American studies, and the expansion of doctoral programs of African American studies necessary for the future trajectory in that field. The article further examines the fields in black colleges, as well as predominantlyRead MoreThe Theories Of The Field Of Psychology Essay1015 Words   |  5 PagesThe field of psychology has grown tremendously over the years. Originally the field began with the Greek asking questions about how we know anything and how we can be sure that we know (Wertheimer, 2012, p.21). The philosophy’s that were created over time lead to the beginning of experimental psychology in 19th century Europe (Wertheimer, 2012, p.65). This was a time of little diversity as those who studied psychology tended to be white European men. This lack of diversity may have hindered the speedRead MoreSTEM Studies1033 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The lack of interest in STEM by African-Americans is a major concern. STEM is the acronym for occupations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The subject matters for these occupations vary and include the following: social science, biological science, computer science, etc. General occupations in the STEM field include but aren’t limited to: practitioners, engineers, technicians, professors. Most careers in the STEM field require a bachelor’s degree as the minimum, but thereRead MoreAfrican Of African American Culture1572 Words   |  7 PagesThere is no doubt that African Americans have a rich cultural background and history like the many different ethnic groups who settled in the New World, whose origins lie in another country. For this reason, America was known as the melting pot. However, the backgrounds of each of these cultures were not always understood or, in the case of African Americans, accepted among the New World society and culture. Ame ricans were ignorant to the possibility of differences among groups of people until informationRead MoreAfricana Studies Should Not Be Limited To Studying The1750 Words   |  7 PagesAfricana Studies should not be limited to studying the oppression blacks and the struggle they’ve experienced though that is an important component and the only component usually seen by others. Black studies can be about blacks learning the necessary skills to be constructive members of society, such as financing, business, computer studies, labor laws and the judiciary systems. There are all field that can help the programs once students have mastered them. Having students doing financing can helpRead MoreHow Have New Emphases And Interpretative Lenses Is History1269 Words   |  6 Pagestraditional methodologies of study to incorporating social and cultural historiography to better analyze their subject matter; while turning from an inner study, as it applies to the United States, towards a more world view. The authors of this week’s reading project’s a theme or commonality that has affected their subfield from the turn of the century until now. They all mention Frederick Jackson Turner’s reading of his famous paper, â€Å"The Significance of the Frontier in American History,† where heRead MoreThe Authoritative Sources Of Economics1470 Words   |  6 PagesEconomics Studies Publications, Research Institutions, and Online Databases Word Count: 1377 Introduction to the Authoritative Sources of Economics In the field of Economics, valuable theories and analysis are based on previous economics research and studies. Peer reviewed scholarly journals, economics studies publications, economics research institutions, and online economics databases are the leading sources in the field of economics. Experts and researchers in the field of economicsRead MoreAnalysis Of Margaret Meads Coming Of Age In Samoa1227 Words   |  5 PagesPago, American Samoa to conduct ethnographic research on a particular problem. Prior to her arrival in American Samoa, Mead with the guidance of her mentor Franz Boas, decided to investigate the lives of adolescent girls in Samoa as a focal point of her research. Mead chose this subject matter due to her speculation that the period adolescence within the United States during the 1920s was filled with stress and a period of turbulence; therefore, Mead hypothesized that stress felt by American youth

Friday, December 20, 2019

Jane Austen s Pride And Prejudice - 861 Words

In the article â€Å"Pride and Prejudice - Inversion and Criticism of the Romantic Novel† written by Koh Tsin Yen, Yen thoroughly explains a deeper meaning of Pride and Prejudice from both hers and Austen’s perspective of the novel. In Jane Austen’s novel Pride and Prejudice, which takes place in the 19th century, Austen portrays marriage and social class as two themes with an extreme importance. While tying together two similar points of views, Yen also incorporates Austen s themes from her novel as well. Throughout the novel several elements are incorporated into the marriages that take place. One of the biggest elements incorporated into the thought of these marriages is social class. By providing examples of several marriages to prove that this novel isn’t your average romance, Yen makes her thesis clear. Several marriages throughout the novel are happening for not the obvious reasoning of love, but rather for the reasoning of other elements instead: s ocial class, wealth, and reason. The first marriage that takes place in the novel is Mr.Collins and Charlotte Lucas’. This marriage is a clear indication of reason, and it strongly shows two people looking to marry specifically for the reasoning of logic. Mr.Collins, a middle-class clergyman, believes that every â€Å"clergyman †¦ (like [himself]) †¦ needs to set the example of [marriage] †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Austen 91). This is the first reason Collins gives for marriage, yet one of the most important as well. With Collins stating this, it shows hisShow MoreRelatedJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1294 Words   |  6 PagesJane Austen s exceptional novel Pride and Prejudice has been depicted as a classic that is as much a social study on class, marriage and gender as it is a romantic tale. It is an amusing representation of the social atmosphere of the late eighteenth and mid nineteenth century England, and it is primarily required with courtship rituals of the English high class. The novel is more than a romantic tale, however through Austen s subtle, and ironic style, it addresses gender, class, and marriageRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1231 Words   |  5 Pagesfinancial stability. In the novel Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen states that the desire for better social connections interferes with the workings of love through the relationship between Darcy and Elizabeth to criticize the social class structure of the 19th century. Anxieties about social connections or the desire for better social connections, interfere with the workings of love. Darcy and Elizabeth s realization of a mutual and tender love seems to imply that Jane Austen views love as something independentRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice992 Words   |  4 Pages It is unfortunate that many people tend to dismiss Jane Austen’s novel, Pride and Prejudice, as simply a romantic love story, even labeling it a â€Å"chick flick.† Upon a shallow reading, it may appear to be such, but a closer look at the novel reveals so much more embedded in the story. In addition to describing the entertaining relationship between Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy, the novel serves to forward Austen s personal values and ideas. Furthermore, there is one issue of her era that she particularlyRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1138 Words   |  5 PagesPride and Prejudice is a novel about the superficiality of marriage during the late 19th and early 20th century, which largely influenced the decisions made by individuals, based on connections and social rankings. The novel takes its characters through various changes influenced by their decision to or rather not to marry certain individuals. It begins not by a man desiring to marry for love, but by a mother who desires nothing more than to marry her daughters well. As the novel develops, Jane AustenRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1211 Words   |  5 PagesJane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice was greatly influenced by the time period in which it was written, This novel follows the story of Elizabeth Bennet and her sisters as they are faced with marriage proposals. The marriage and roles of women in this time period are shown throughout this story. During the time Austen was writing this novel, a woman’s role for her family changed. Daughters started to become a way for their family to achieve more money. Because their family depended on this finan cialRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1678 Words   |  7 PagesAfter reading Jane Austen’s most popular piece of work, the effects of the high societal expectations can be acknowledged through viewing the lives of the Bennet family and friends and noting such effects. Through the examination of the characters in Pride and Prejudice it is easily deciphered between marriages based upon true love and marriage based upon the expectations of society. Society’s main goal for woman in the Victorian era was marriage. As seen many in Pride and Prejudice, marriage wasRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1675 Words   |  7 PagesIn Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, she has specific criteria that her characters follow when choosing their mates. In today’s society, most couples still follow these criteria and more when choosing their ideal mate. What are these important criteria that Austen’s characters consider when choosing a mate? For Austen, the important criteria that she has for choosing a mate are that couples are personally compatible, they are in love with each other, and they must have a good moral character. Read MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1434 Words   |  6 PagesJane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice was considered a radical novel back in 1813 when she wrote and published the piece. It is a social commentary on the treatment and societal standards of women, as well marriage expectations at the turn of the 19th century. Austen criticizes the patriarchal society, materialism, double standards of men and women by centering the book around Elizabeth Bennett, a young woman of decent means who does not understand the reason for the pressure to find a suitable husbandRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1468 Words   |  6 Pagesestablished over time. In Jane Austen s novel, Pride and Prejudice Elizabeth Bennet is the main character who is a lady in the Regency Era. Elizabeth lives in Longbourn with her parents, Mr and Mrs Bennet and her four sisters. In the beginning of the novel, Elizabeth s prejudice mindset and strong opinion blinds her from realizations happening arou nd her. Soon, Elizabeth s prejudice disappears allowing her to open up and fall in love. Throughout Jane Austen s novel, Pride and Prejudice, Elizabeth growsRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1649 Words   |  7 PagesIn her novel, Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen is pre-occupied with the theme of marriage. Marriage is a central issue of a woman’s life but it was even more crucial for the women of her society where women were largely dependent on the men in their lives. As a result, women pursued socio-economic stability through marriage. However, it is clear through the novel that Austen did not agree with this part of her society. In Pride and Prejudice, she gives preference to a marriage which is based on love

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Employee Contractor and Decision Tool

Question: Discuss about the Employee Contractor and Decision Tool. Answer: Introduction: It has been specifically observed that a multi factor test have been adopted by the tribunals for determining whether an individual was regarded as a worker or was doing gis trade as an independent contractor (CPA Australia, 2017). However, in applying the test, a tribunal would look at the complete relationship and make a verdict on the stability. Similarly, any written contract which states the nature of a relationship as either service or a contractual was appropriate but not decisive (Tobin, 2011). Similarly, for supporting in a self- appraisal of the status of workers a common law test have been prevalent in the state (Kemp Strang, 2017). In has been significantly important to confirm on the point that who was a worker as the common law rules on the basis of employment were different from the common law rules in regard to the independent contractor. The Common law does not specifically describe who was a worker but rather it differentiates work associations into 2 categories like contract of service or other kinds of work or agreement. So, the current common law test in Australia has created a multi factor test for determining whether an employee was a worker or an independent contractor (HWL Ebsworth Lawyers, 2011). The Multi- Factor test has been defined as a primary test which was utilized in the state in order to identify an agreement of employment. In Performing Right Society v. Mitchell and Booker (Palais de Danse) Ltd (1942) it has been specifically stated that if there would be a final test and certainly the test to be generally applied depends on two factors such as the nature and degree of detailed control over the individual who was the servant and the situation was one only of a number to be considered but was usually of vital significance (Kelly Workplace Lawyers, 2017). In Stevens v. Brodibb Sawmilling Co. Pty Ltd (1985) the above mentioned test was applied, whereby the tribunal stated that the control test have been a important factor though not critical exclusive of indication to other elements like possession of tools, authority to delegate, and so on (Australian Government, 2017). In another matter of Building Workers Industrial Union of Australia v. Odco Pty Ltd (trouble Shooters case) (1991) and it was concluded that the employees were independent contractors as there was not much CONTROL by the organization over such workers were not paid weekly by the agency (Forsyth, 2017). Also, it people were not on payroll or there was a lack of control factor, then it could be stated as a independent contractorship. So, in the current situation the multiple indicia test has been applied, the following wasanalytical of the link between the employee and employer: If people assume Donald was an employee, then whether ABC have breached any federal legislation in relation to requiring him to contract to DEF or not? Constructive dismissal in effect with the forced resignation has been usually in a poor manner be understood mainly as it could manifest itself in a heap of different circumstances relying on the terms if any provided employment association (Maurice Blackburn Lawyers, 2017). It takes place when the demeanor of the employer was so injurious, unfavorable or unsociable to the agreement of employment and the employment association that the employee could not be predictable to put upwith it (Croft, 2016). For example, if an employer specificallyportentous of the fact that a worker to leave (irrespective of whether the worker made the proposal) so as to help out with protecting the future ability of the workers to get hold of work. In O'Meara v Stanley Works Pty Ltd [2006] AIRC 496 it hasbeen affirmed that the worker must show that the actions of employer were the main contributing factor which have led to their resignation. The actions of the employer must be found to have beenunswervingly and inevitablyconcluded in the termination of the employment (that the worker had no effectual or actual choice but to leave) and that the worker would have continued to beengaged but for the supposedbehavior. The resignation must also takes placedirectly after, or very shortly after, the conduct protested of, if not the worker could be said to have established the sustainedsubsistence of the employment agreement (in effect, 'tolerating' the demeanor) (Workplace info, 2017). But Constructive dismissal often forms the foundation of "dismissal-related" assertions such as unfair dismissal or a contravention of the general protections sections of the Fair Work Act (Australian Government, 2017). A recent example was the matter of Foster v Sushi Tribe Pty Ltd T/A Pacific Retail Management [2016] FWC 2201 it was concluded that the Fair Work Commission affirmed that the plaintiff was constructively dismissed. All constructive dismissal matters also make it clear that employers need to cautiouslybelieve their events when they decide they desire to be free of a worker. There washardly ever a low-risk shortcut that could substitute goodbeing without a jobdeliberations or act management (Robinson, 2003).Application So, in the present case the constructive dismissal principle would be applicable as Donald was forced to resign the job. And also at the same time the federal law of Fair Work was violated as he was terminated without notice. Conclusion Therefore, at the end it could be concluded that If people assume Donald was an employee of ABC Corporation, then ABC would clearly be in contravention of the Fair Work Act of the federal l legislation in relation to requiring him to contract to DEF. Such an act was forcefully imposed in him as he was told that if he would not sign than he would be terminated which he was even after signing the deed. Whether thepeople assume Donald was considered as an employee, does ABC have an obligation to give Donald any notice on termination, under common law or legislation or not? It has been clearly stated that a notice of termination has been regarded as an authorized, written notice of being laid off or terminated from a present position of the worker. Reasons for termination could alsodiffer from gross delinquency, slowness, and disobedience to layoffs, corporate conclusions, or rationalizing (Walsh, 2013). But whenever a worker would be terminated from his job then the worker would be permitted to have a notice or expense in lieu of notice from the employer. Such an act must be done by the employer as it was his obligation to do so. Employers must also be conscious of their duties. But a failure to act in accordance with the minimum notice standards under the Workplace Relations Act 1996 and fair Work Act on the part of employer could lead to further, increased damages against him. Similarly, in majority of matters, when an employer ends the service of a worker who has been incessantlyengaged for three months, the employer must grant the worker with either written notice of termination, termination pay or a amalgamation. In Barton v. Rona, 2012 ONSC 3809it was stated that the plaintiff sued for an act of unlawfulremoval from office and was awarded 10 months pay in lieu of notice. The tribunal alsodiffered their view with the zero-tolerance health and safety rule of the employer, portentousof the fact that employers should evaluate the proportionality of the delinquency with the permitforced and also be careful of the zero-tolerance advancement. So, as in the present situation no notice for the termination was given by the ABC Corporation to Donald so they would be regarded to be in breach of their obligations. And at the same time the tribunal could ask the corporation to award the payment in lieu and also provide the payment due in that notice period. References Australian Government. (2017). Employee/contractor decision tool. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Australian Government. (2017). Unfair dismissal. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: CPA Australia. (2017). Employees And Contractors. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Croft, E. (2016). Australia: What Is Constructive Dismissal?. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Forsyth, A. (2017). General Counsel Employment law Employment/work relationships. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: HWL Ebsworth Lawyers. (2011). Contractor or Employee?.Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Kelly Workplace Lawyers. (2017). Contracts of Employment. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Kemp Strang. (2017). The Never Ending Argument - Independent Contractor or Employee. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Maurice Blackburn Lawyers. (2017). Breach of employment contract. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Robinson, A, A. (2003). Resignation andconstructive dismissal. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Tobin, A. (2011). Australia: Contractors v Employees: The differences and why it matters - Part 2. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Walsh, P. (2013). Australia: Termination of Employment in Australia: Best Practice Guide. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: Workplace info. (2017). Constructive dismissal. Retrieved on 6th February2017 from: